GSPIA Professor Phil Williams and co-author, Dr. Dighton Fiddner, explore one of the most significant features of cyberspace in their new book: Cyberspace: Malevolent Actors, Criminal Opportunities, and Strategic Competition.  The authors believe that cyberspace is becoming an increasingly risky place for the entire spectrum of users: nation-states, nongovernmental and transnational organizations, commercial enterprises, and individuals. It is also  a space of opportunities—for benevolent, neutral, and malevolent actors. Moreover, the authors identify and assess the challenges and threats to security that can arise in cyberspace because of its unique characteristics both as a distinct strategic domain and as something linked land, air, sea, and space military domains. In the final section, the authors discuss a variety of responses, with some suggesting that the options being pursued most vigorously by the United States are poorly conceived and ill-suited to the tasks at hand.